- 1 What did I study
- 2 My work as a University Professor
- 3 My whereabouts around the world
- 4 My research projects
- 5 My projects of teaching innovation
- 6 Lectures given around the world
- 7 Literary Awards that I have received
- 8 Summer courses that I have directed
- 9 Conferences, courses and other academic activities that I have coordinated
- 10 Academic conferences in which I have taken part
- 11 Graduation thesis that I have supervised
- 12 Editorial Boards and Institutes I belong to
- 13 Associations to which I belong
- 14 Blind peer reviewer for academic journals and scientific awards
- 15 Lifelong learning
- 16 Academic administration: current posts
- 17 Academic administration: previous posts
- 18 Other professional activities (besides being a university professor)
I graduated from University of Salamanca with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy and Education in 1996. This very year I received the Spanish National Award of Completion of Studies, an award that honored me as one of the three Spanish students with a best academic performance in Philosophy by the time of completion of my undergraduate period. During my last year as an undergraduate, I enjoyed a senior’s scholarship by the Basque Government
I did my graduate studies at the University of Salamanca as well, thanks to a doctoral scholarship of that university (1997-2001) and a grant awarded by the Foundation Caja Madrid (2001). In those years I received a MPhil degree in Philosophy, Logic and Philosophy of Science (June 2000) and another MPhil degree in History and Philosophy of Law and Moral and Political Philosophy (September 2000)
I also became a PhD in Philosophy at the University of Salamanca in 2002, and I was awarded the Extraordinary Doctorate Award of that year with my thesis Normativity, interpretation and praxis: Wittgenstein in a hermeneutical-nihilistic turn
I have worked as a tenured professor at the European Uiversity Miguel de Cervantes between 2007 and 2021; and adjunct professor there between 2006 and 2007.
I was adjunct professor at the Pontifical University of Salamanca between 2004 and 2006.
I have worked as a Visiting Professor, Visiting Fellow and Scholar in several universities around the world:
I developed a research stay, in the summer of 2010 and 2011, at the branch that the newly-founded Euro-Mediterranean University Institute has on the island of Malta.
During the summer of 2008 I was a Lonergan Post-Doctoral Fellow at Boston College
In Rome, for seven summer weeks of 2007, I enjoyed a research stay under the direction of Prof. Sebastiano Maffettone in the Faculty of Political Science of the Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali “Guido Carli” (Luiss), where I also had some lectures
I was a research scholar in the State University of New York during the summer of 2006
In the summer of 2005 I was a Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Political Science and Government and at the Faculty of International Relations, as well as at the School of Human Sciences, of the Universidad Colegio Mayor Nuestra Señora del Rosario, in Bogota (Colombia)
In my period as a doctoral scholar at the University of Salamanca (1997-2002), I had a long research stay also at the Università degli Studi di Torino (and under the direction of Prof. Gianni Vattimo as well).
Under this very program of research stays, I had the chance of spending the summer of 1999 at the Centre Européen pour l’Étude de l’Argumentation of the Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (Brussels, Belgium), where I was supervised by Prof. Michel Meyer
The AECI gave me the chance of working during the summer of 1998 as a professor and researcher at the Seminar on Epistemology and Applied Logic of the Faculty of Philosophy and the Humanities at the Universidad Colegio Mayor Nuestra Señora del Rosario, in Bogota (Colombia)
My doctoral studies started in the year 1996-97 at Wien Universität in Vienna (Austria), thanks to a scholarship by the Austrian Government that allowed me to study the influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein on Continental Philosophy
The AECI appointed me as a professor and research scholar during the summer (austral winter) of 1996 at the Faculty of the Humanities, Social Sciences and Health of the Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero (Argentina). I had also the chance of giving some lectures at the Faculty of Education of the Universidad Católica de Santiago del Estero
When I was still an undergraduate, I studied with an Erasmus scholarship during the school year 1994-95 at the Università di Roma II “Tor Vergata”, where I had the luck of meeting Prof. Mario Perniola, with whom I still cooperate
I was also a professor for two years (2004-06) at the School of Communications of the Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, and did some replacements (in 2000) at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Universidad de Salamanca
As a professor and as a coordinator for graduate courses, I worked from 2003 to 2012 at the master and doctorate programs of the Theoria Research Group at the Faculty of Political Sciences and Sociology of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Between January 2008 and December 2009 I was the research director of the project New Paradigms of Interactivity: How the Emergence of Interactive Audiovisual Media is influencing Today’s Culture Divulgation, University Education and Media Ethics, financed by the Regional Government of Castile and Leon. Our purpose in this research was to apply some of the ideas of Slavoj Zizek and Robert Pfaller to the way that cultural managers use audiovisual media in places like museums, universities and deontological committees
Between May 2008 and May 2009 I worked for the project A Strategy on Audiovisual Alphabetization with YouTube, financed by the Audiovisual Council of Catalonia and under the direction of Prof. Carmen Echazarreta Soler (University of Gerona). This was the first project that we undertook from the Research Group for the Analysis of Video Displays and its Reception (ARPA). And one of its most relevant results was the internet platform Entutv, a place where we try to exhibit (in Catalan and Spanish) the results of the above cited research project
In past years I was engaged in other research projects, like Science, Philosophy and Religion in 20th Century Spanish Thought (Caja Duero-Pontifical University of Salamanca, 2005-06); and I also worked as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in A Topology of Contemporary Thought: Polemics and Convergences in Current Philosophical Trends (Ministry of Science and Technology, 2002-05)
Actualmente trabajo en el Grupo de Investigación en Comportamientos Sociales Problemáticos: Violencia, Acoso y Criminología (GICOSOP) de la Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes.
I have directed the project on teaching innovation Learning across generations: an experience on intergenerational integration through the use of audiovisual communication in ethical debates, a project with already four editions (from 2016 to 2020), funded by the Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes.
As a participant, I have been engaged at the Pilot Project for the Adaptation of Current Courses in the Communications School of the Pontifical University of Salamanca to the New European Space of Higher Education (Regional Government of Castile and Leon, 2005-06).
OIDEL (Geneve, Switzerland)
European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium)
Fundación Ecuador Libre (Ecuador)
Peruvian Philosophical Society (Peru)
Auditorium of the National University Federico Villarreal at Lima (Peru)
Martin Heidegger Auditorium of the Circle of Hermeneutics and Social Studies (CIHER) at the National University Federico Villarreal (Lima, Peru)
Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Przyrodnicza im. W. Pola w Lublinie (Vincent Pol University, Lublin, Poland)
Facultatea de Horticultură at the Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agronomice şi Medicină Veterinară (Bucarest, Romania)
Departamento de História, Filosofia e Ciências Sociais at the Universidade dos Açores (Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal)
Anacortes High School in Anacortes (Washington, United States of America)
Facultades de Ciencia Política y de Gobierno and Relaciones Internacionales of the Universidad Colegio Mayor Nuestra Señora del Rosario (Bogota, Colombia)
Escuela de Ciencias Humanas at Universidad Colegio Mayor Nuestra Señora del Rosario (Bogota, Colombia)
Seminar “Enrique Dussels Ethik der Befreiung” at Wien Universität (Vienna, Austria)
Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo, in Valencia.
Instituto Superior de Filosofía of Valladolid
Centro Asociado de la Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) in Palencia
Seminar on Ethics at Universidad Europea de Madrid
Ateneu barcelonès, Sección de Estudios políticos, jurídicos y sociales (Barcelona)
Ayuntamiento de La Seca (Valladolid)
Biblioteca Pública “Manuel Alvar” (Madrid)
Biblioteca Pública “Retiro” (Madrid)
Casa de América (Madrid)
Casa de la Iglesia (Salamanca)
Centro Cultural Integrado Isabel la Católica, Asociación de Alumnos y Exalumnos del Programa Universitario de la Experiencia (APRIUEX) of Medina del Campo (Valladolid)
Centro Cultural La Malagueta (Málaga)
Centro Libre. Arte y Cultura (CLAC) (Barcelona)
Círculo Liberal Bastiat (Sevilla)
Coco Café (Valladolid)
De Pablo Consultores (Salamanca)
Encuentro Madrid (Madrid)
Escuela Oficial de Idiomas (Salamanca)
Fundación Civismo (San Lorenzo del Escorial)
Fundación Conversación (Madrid)
Fundación Progreso y Democracia (Madrid)
Fundación Villacisneros (Madrid)
Grupo Polis de la Delegación de Apostolado Seglar de la Archidiócesis de Toledo
Hotel AHC Palacio (Coria, Cáceres)
La Portilla (Comillas, Cantabria)
Librería La Central de El Raval (Barcelona)
Meta Librería (Madrid)
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Español Patio Herreriano (Valladolid)
Seminario Diocesano (Valladolid)
The Heroes Club (Madrid)
Tizona Comunicación (Madrid)
Value School (Madrid)
In 1993 I was honored with the literary award Letras Jóvenes by the Regional Government of Castile and Leon, for my prose work Más que la vida misma (“More than life itself”).
The Values of Spanish Transition to Democracy, Today (4rth edition), at the Casa Revilla of Valladolid in July 2019.
The Values of Spanish Transition to Democracy, Today (3rd edition), at the Casa Revilla of Valladolid in July 2018.
The Values of Spanish Transition to Democracy, Today (2nd edition), at the Casa Revilla of Valladolid in July 2017.
The Values of Spanish Transtion to Democracy, Today (1st edition), at the European University Miguel de Cervantes in July 2016.
With Alfonso Valero and Alfonso Domínguez I was the director of the 1st Congress of the Forum of Scholars “Spain United, a Past and a Future in Common”, celebrated at the Law School of the University of Valladolid (April 2019).
I coordinated the panel on Media Ethics at the 18th Conference of the Spanish Association of Ethics and Political Philosophy «Public Challenges, at the University of Cordoba (January 2016)
I was part of the Organizing Board of the Fist International Conference on the Vega Bull and Popular Tauromachy, celebrated at the Houses of the Tordesillas Treaty, Valladolid (September 2014), and of the Second International Conference on the Vega Bull and Popular Tauromachy, celebrated at the Houses of the Tordesillas Treaty and at the Town Council of Tordesillas, Valladolid (September 2015).
I belonged to the Scientific Board of the 1st Symposium of Editors in Hispanic and American Studies, at the University Jaume I of Castellon (April 2010), and of the 2nd Symposium of Editors in Hispanic and American Studies, at the University of Cadiz (April 2012).
I coordinated the panel on Media Ethics at the 17th Conference on Ethics and Political Philosophy «Us and the others», celebrated at the University of the Basque Country of San Sebastian (June 2011).
At the Research Group for the Analysis of Video Displays and its Reception (ARPA) we have organized two international conferences on The construction of Gender in Television Fiction (September-October 2010) and on Gender Representation in 21st Century Advertising (May 2009), both celebrated at the University of Gerona. I was member of the Scientific Board of the first of them and of the the Organizing Board of the second one.
Between 2006 and 2008 I was appointed coordinator, with Joaquín Esteban, of the Seminar on Contemporary Society and Culture (Semsocu) at my university Celebrating the 40th anniversary of the “revolution” of May 68, I organized with Víctor del Río García a series of lectures under the title May 1968-2008. The revised revolution. They took place at the Spanish Contemporary Art Museum “Patio Herreriano” and were sponsored by my university in May 2008.
I was a member of the Scientific Committee of the 6th Symposium of the Journal “Diálogo Filosófico”: Science and Human Being, celebrated at the Pontifical University of Salamanca (October 2007).
I was, with V. Cazurro and Pedro Santa Brígida, the coordinator of the 1st Symposium on Audiovisual Regulation at the Miguel de Cervantes European University, in April 2007.
At the 15th Congress of the Spanish Association of Ethics and Political Philosophy «Tradition and Innovation in Ethics and Political Philosophy», celebrated at the UNED of Madrid in March 2007, I was the coordinator of the panel on Media Ethics.
I coordinated the section Migrations and Nationalisms: the Multiculturalist Challenge of the Master of Arts at the Complutense University of Madrid-EU Consortium “Europe, 21 Century: Philosophy and Social Sciencies”, courseyear 2006-07 (5 credits ECTS).
I belonged to the Organizing Committee and to the Scientific Committee of the 3rd International Symposium of the Institute of Iberian-American Thought «Hispanic Thinking in America: from the 16th to the 20th century» celebrated in the Pontifical University of Salamanca in October 2006.
At the Communications School of the Pontifical University of Salamanca I was the founder of the Lectures Series Ethics and Communications. I was as well the coordinator, with M.E. Polo, of its first two editions, in April-May 2005 and May 2006.
I was academic coordinator of the Lifelong Learning Course for Teachers (4 credits) Marx Update. What Can Marx Teach to Contemporary Culture, Arts and Society; and What Can These Teach to Marx, directed by Román Reyes at the School of Political Science and Sociology of the Complutense University of Madrid, jointly with the Goethe Institut of Madrid (February-March 2005).
I coordinated the section Critical Postmodernity: European Contemporary Thought at the Specialist Diploma at the Complutense University of Madrid «Historical Materialism and Critical Theory», 4th edition, courseyear 2004-05.
I coordinated with Gorka Fernández Villarón in October 2003 the Symposium «European Cultural Identity in Multicultural Europe» at the University of Salamanca, seminar belonging to the EUxIN (European Union Cross Identity Network (a network of the universities of Salamanca, Heidelberg, Bologna, Louvain-la-Neuve and Montpellier), under the direction of José Antonio Fernández Delgado.
I was appointed chairman of the afternoon session on October 12, 2000, at the International Conference Bach 2000: Music between Virgin Forest and Knowledge Society, organized by the Compostela Group of Universities and the Masaryk University of Brno (Czech Republic) in the Sudeten German Music Institute in Regensburg (Germany).
At the small blog included in this website you may read about all the contributions that I have made to several conferences, symposia and other kinds of academic meetings from 2008 until today.
A complete list of all those contributions (up to 116 as of September 2021) may be checked out here (in Spanish).
Journalism in the Digital World: A Comparison among Different Editions of the Main Spanish Newspapers by Viviana Díaz Aguado (Journalism, March 2019).
Political Infotainment: Two Examples from the Spanish TV, by Alberto Manuel Fernández Barderas (Journalism, November 2017).
Advertising and Transmission of Capitalist Ideology, by Maitena Fonseca Rodero (Advertising and Public Relations, March 2016).
Leadership Assessment of Spanish Politicians in 2015 through Non Verbal Communication and Neurmarketing Techniques, by Carlos Agúndez Diez (Advertising and Public Relations, March 2016).
The Construction of the Public Image of Enrique Peña Nieto as a Candidate to the Presidency of the Republic of Mexico, by Isabel Matellán Rodríguez (Advertising and Public Relations, November 2015).
Commnicating in Times of Crisis: The Ebola Case, by Carlos Martínez Rodríguez (Advertising and Public Relations, November 2015).
“Marca España” and the role of His Majesty the King Philip VI in its Promotion, by Alejandra Temprano Cobo (Journalism, October 2015). Published by the publishing house Ápeiron in 2016, into its colection Faber & Sapiens , n. 17.
The Future of Journalism: Analysis of Different Business Models Today, by Jaime Sánchez Nielfa (Journalism, March 2015).
Rumors in Spanish Sports Press: Case Study of the Newspaper Marca in a Month before the Elections of the President of the Real Madrid, by Sergio Calleja Gómez (Journalism, March 2015).
Presence and Influence of Margaret Thatcher in the Communications and Politics of David Cameron, by Paloma Dios Noguera (Journalism, October 2014).
Analysis of the Publicity of the Seminci Festival and Proposal of a New Campaign, by José Luis Munuera García (Advertising and Public Relations, March 2014).
Particracy: Criticisms and Proposals for a Reform of the Democratic Political System in Spain, by Tobías Antón Lazo (Audiovisual Communications, October 2013).
The audiovisual part of this work (the written complementary part is not available here) may be watched (in Spanish) here:
Public Relations as a Solution to National Political Problems: the Case of Indigenous Peoples in Colombia, by Noelia Arranz Rodríguez (Advertising and Public Relations, July 2013).
Covert Advertising in Local and Regional Press. Corporate News in Castile and Leon, by Ana Rodríguez Gutiérrez (Advertising and Public Relations, July 2013).
Ethics of the Social Networking Services: New challenges for Moral Reflection?, by Jesús Noguera Duque (Advertising and Public Relations, July 2012).
Advertising and Consumerism in a Postmodern Society: Ethical Analysis and Case Study, by María Serrano Calleja (Adverstising and Public Relations, July 2012).
People against Bullfighting, by Javier González Celay (Audiovisual Communications, July 2010).
Trailer of the audiovisual part of this work (a documentary of 80 minutes):
Mythoanalysis and Advertising. Theory and Case Studies, by Cristina Díaz Bajo (Advertising and Public Relations, July 2010).
Journalism Ethics, Celebrities Press and the Attitudes of Journalism Students to Both of Them, by Tamara García Moreno (Journalism, July 2010).
Soccer, Violence and the Press: A Study on the Uses of Aggressive Language by some Spanish Newspapers before the Final of the King’s Coup in 2009, by Juan Giles Mato (Journalism, February 2010).
Gervasio Sánchez: Social Photography at Forgotten Wars, by Gonzalo Gete Arroyo (Audiovisual Communications, September 2009).
Persuassion, Advertising, Teenagers and Television: An Ethical Comparative Analysis of the TV Commercials of a Thematic and a Generalist Channel in Spain, by Leticia Herrero Villagra (Advertising and Public Relations, July 2009).
Language and Politics: An Analysis of How the Two Main Political Parties in Spain Use Language when they Talk about ETA’s Terrorism, by Natalia Otero de Bustos (Journalism, July 2008).
Prejudices towards the Rural World in Advertising: A Study Case, by Enrique González Tamayo (Advertising and Public Relations, July 2008).
TV Discourse on Gender Violence: A Study Case on Two Reports, by Aranzazu Santiago Orueta (Journalism, September 2007).
Images of Sub-Saharan Africa in the Op-Eds of the Spanish Newspaper El País during 2006, by Beatriz Sanz Olandía (Journalism, July 2007).
Sensationalism in the News Programs of the Spanish TV Chanel Antena 3: A Week’s Study Case, by Laura Barros Vaca (Audiovisual Communications, July 2007).
I am a member of the International Board of the philosophical journal Solar (ISSN 1816-2924), published by the Universidad Científica del Sur in Lima (Peru).
I belong to the Editorial Board of the philosophical journal Revista Hiperbórea, published in México D.F. by Napoleón Conde Gaxiola.
I am an extraordinary member, academic advisor and member of the International Adjunct Committee of the CIHER (Circle of Hermeneutics and Social Studies) in Lima, Peru.
I participate at the Instituto Deliberar.
I am a founding member of the Spanish Association of Ethics and Political Philosophy (AEEFP) and I was a member of its Board of Directors from June 2013 to December 2014.
I belong to the International Network for Sexual Ethics and Politics (INSEP), based on Ghent University (Belgium).
I belong as well to the American Hispanic Association of the Humanities (AHH).
I am an associate member of the Spanish Center for Intellectual Property (CEDRO).
I am a member of the Spanish Association of Scientific, Technical and Academic Authors (ACTA).
Luis Díez del Corral Award to the best Ph.D. thesis in History of Political Ideas and Forms, Normative Political Theory and Political Philosophy, given by the Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, called in 2016 and 2017.
Ixtli: Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía de la Educación, editada por la Asociación Latinoamericana de Filosofía de la Educación (ALFE).
Prolegomena: Journal of Philosophy, published by the Society for the Advancement of Philosophy and Centre of Croatian Studies at the University of Zagreb (Croatia)
IB Journal of Teaching Practice, published by the International Baccalaureate (Geneva, Switzerland)
Revista de Filosofía, published by the Philosophy School at the University Complutense of Madrid
Revista Internacional de Sociología, published by the IESA (Advanced Social Studies Instite) of the CSIC (Spanish Council of Scientific Research, Madrid).
Anuario Filosófico, published by the Department of Philosophy at the University of Navarre.
Zer. Revista de Estudios de Comunicación, published by the School of Social Sciences and Communications of the University of the Basque Country.
Comunicación y sociedad, published by the School of Communications at the University of Navarre.
Pensar la Publicidad. Revista Internacional de Investigaciones Publicitarias, jointly published by the University Complutense of Madrid and the University of Valladolid.
Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez. Revista de filosofía jurídica y política, published by the University of Granada Press.
Contrastes. Revista Internacional de Filosofía, published by the Philosophy Degree of the University of Málaga.
Historia y Comunicación Social, published by the University Press of the University Complutense of Madrid.
These are the main lifelong learning activities that I have done as a student and now as a professor. For a complete list of them (as of May 2020, in Spanish) you may check here .
Moral Foundations of Politics, by Prof. Ian Shapiro, University of Yale (USA)
Salamanca Social Science Festival 2011, organized by the Fundación de Estudios de Economía Aplicada (Fedea) at Salamanca (Spain)
Il senso della fine / Le sens de la fin / The meaning of the end, directed by Prof. Paolo Fabbri & Mario Perniola, at the Centro Internazionale di Semiotica e Linguistica of the Università degli Studi di Urbino (Italy)
Embodied Prayer: the Experience of the Sacred through Ritual, Movement and Dance, by Prof. Robert VerEecke at the School of Theology and Ministry of the Boston College (USA)
Relativismo e universalismo, by Prof. Domenico Losurdo at the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici in Naples (Italy)
European Immigration: Identity and Integration, by Prof. John Gray & Paul Kelly and organized by the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) of London (United Kingdom)
Nietzsche y las máscaras de la cultura contemporánea, by Prof. Gianni Vattimo & Jesús Conill, at the Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo in Valencia (Spain)
Dalla filosofia morale all’etica applicata, by Prof. Victoria Camps at the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici in Naples (Italy)
Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad, by Prof. Miguel Ángel Quintanilla Fisac, at the Summer University of Castile and Leon in Segovia (Spain)
Introducción a las corrientes de Epistemología Contemporánea, by Prof. Ernest Sosa, at the Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
Dissertantenseminar, by Prof. Peter Kampits at the Institut für Philosophie of the Wien Universität in Vienna (Austria)
Elementos Básicos de la Epistemología de las Ciencias Exactas, by Prof. Evandro Agazzi at the Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero (Argentina)
Director of the Humanities Department at the European University Miguel de Cervantes (since June 2017).
Member of the Research Ethics Committee at the European University Miguel de Cervantes (since February 2021).
Member of the Board for Teaching Innovations at the European University Miguel de Cervantes (since May 2015).
Mentor for the students of Criminology at the European University Miguel de Cervantes, since the courseyear 2016-17.
Mentor of 1st and 2nd year students of Audivisual Communications and 4th year students of Advertisement and Public Relations (schoolyear 2015-16), 1st year students of Criminology and Security (schoolyear 2012-13) and 4th year students of Advertisement and Public Relations and Audiovisual Communications (schoolyear 2011-12) at the European University Miguel de Cervantes.
Member of the Board for Gender Equality at the European University Miguel de Cervantes (from October 2016 to December 2018).
Director of the Debating Society at the European University Miguel de Cervantes (from 2014 to 2018).
Member of the Docentia Assessment Board of Teaching at the European University Miguel de Cervantes (schoolyear 2010-2011).
Director of the European University Miguel de Cervantes Press (October 2007-January 2011).
Erasmus coordinator at the School of Humanities and Communications of the European University Miguel de Cervantes (schoolyear 2006-2007).
Other professional activities (besides being a university professor)
I have directed the Fundación Progreso y Democracia Press from July 2011 to July 2013.
In a joint work with T. Oñate and the rest of the Palimpsestos Group, I participated in the making of the series of television programs “Voices of Contemporary Thought”, broadcast by the Second Channel of the Spanish National TV (TVE) in 2003.
Since 2003 I write, assess and moderate exams for the Philosophy Section of the International Baccalaureate. I have also been a workshop leader for several events of this institution.
I have been a teacher in the 90’s for the Public Languages School in Salamanca and for the now extinct International Education Forum (in Saint Augustine, Florida, USA).